- Mountain of Contemporary Art Busan, Busan, South Korea; Busan
Mulmangol Bunker Regeneration International Competition
part of the urban regeneration project, Busan Metropolitan City supports
and administrates the revitalization project of the underground bunker
system in Mulmangol in Hwangnyoengsan Mountain, Busan. Kyungdong
Construction Co. Ltd. owns 13 million square meters of land in the area,
which include the 4,000 square meter bunker system partially existed as
a cave since the Japanese colonial era, has decided to develop the
facility in conjunction with the surrounding landscape.
bunker, constructed as military operation facility in 1968 had been left
unused and was registered as a structure for storage purposes in March
2016. An international competition, hosted by the Busan International
Architectural Culture Festival and promoted by Kyungdong, Construction
Co. Ltd., was held to seek an innovative architectural idea and
strategic concept to regenerate the existing bunker facility and to
create a new addition, which will activate regional social and economic
development in Busan.
proposal MOCABU - Mountain of Contemporary Art Busan, awarded second
prize in the competition, emphasis a large-scale art installation space,
penetrating the mountain and making the former hidden bunker system
visible to the city. An additional 250 meter high, needle thin tower,
housing an automated parking system and an observation deck creates a
symbolic landmark in the mountain above Busan.
invites visitors from all over the world to experience a large scale
one-of-a-kind annual art installation conceived by an internationally
renowned artist within the installation space in Hwangnyeongsan
Mountain. Each year an acclaimed artist or group of artists will be
invited to transform the installation space and reinterpret the
perception of the space and the city, creating a world class destination
and major international tourist attraction.
3,500 square metres clear span installation space is a volume of 170 m
length x 20 m width x 20 m height, created to form an extension to the
existing bunker system. The space penetrates the mountain from east to
west and opens up to views above the city and the neighbouring
mountains. Visitors can engage and immerse in the arts and culture
inside and through the mountain; offering art lovers and also those who
do not usually visit museums a visual connection to the arts and culture
from the city.
to the installation space, an 800 square metres artist residence and
studio workshop enables artists to work and live on site during the
production period of the art piece.
existing bunker system connecting the new additions is largely
maintained in its original layout for visitors to experience the former
bunker atmosphere. The narrow gridded tunnel system will be restored and
transformed into additional exhibition spaces for contemporary visual
The new addition above the existing bunker system to the west houses a cafe and restaurant, bookstore and workshops. The building anchors onto the Hwangnyeongsan Mountain while partially cantilevering towards the city and sea view beyond.
unassuming presence of MOCABU / Mountain of Contemporary Art Busan is
recognized as a destination for its arts and culture. To express the
landmark character of this unique museum space, the car park structure
incorporates an automated parking system in a 144 square metres
footprint that also serves as an observation deck. At the height of 250
metres, the structure offers a viewing platform with a 360 degree view
onto the cityscape, mountains and harbours of Busan. The landmark sets
within the Hwangnyeongsan Mountain leading to the installation space,
marking the presence of MOCABU rising needle-thin into the sky above
great significance of this competition is that it showed the
potentiality and possibility of proposed model projects to develop a
mountainous area in the urban center today when the needs of new leisure
are increasing with the change of lifestyle which is becoming more
conscious of ecological and cultural values in spatial management,
although it would be necessary to actively reflect the requests of Busan
citizens and overcome the current legal restraints. It also showed the
possibility that the project site could become not simply a downtown
theme park in Busan but a national tourist attraction, insofar as its
development would not serve only for short-term profitability but also
reflect social and public considerations.”
conceptualized and beautifully formalized, this scheme approaches the
development of the bunkers and mountain into a cultural destination in
the most minimal way. The “unassuming presence” of the installation
space - articulated as an open tube that penetrates the topography from
side to side - will act and an important infrastructural connection
while providing views of the city.
is architecturally very interesting. This is a very minimal suggestion
where the site-penetrating space makes a vista and forms a symbolic
space that connects the site and the city while vertically connecting to
the underground bunker with minimal engagement.
consistent layout of the plan in association with the image and form of
the existing tunnel is notable, and such a strategy is also well-founded
as to symbolically embody the image of tunnel with the box which
transversally penetrates the site.”
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